Sierra Leone is bounded on the north-west, north and north-east by the Republic Guinea, on the south-east by the Republic of Liberia and on south-west by the Atlantic Ocean. It has an space of 27,925 sq. miles. The colony of Sierra Leone originated within the sale and cession in 1787 by native chiefs to English settlers of a chunk of land supposed as a house for African settlers who had been waifs in London and later it was used as a settlement for freed African slaves. The hinterland was declared a British Protectorate on twenty first August, 1896. Sierra Leone attained independence on twenty seventh April, 1961 and have become a Republic in 1971. Training is offered by each non-public and state-sponsored faculties. The present system of schooling is 6-3-4-4 (that’s six years Main faculty, three years Junior Secondary College, 4 years Senior Secondary College and 4 years tertiary/larger schooling. This technique is complemented by non- formal schooling.
CONCEPT OF EDUCATION
Training is steadily used within the sense of instruction within the classroom, laboratory, workshop or home science room and consists principally within the imparting by the trainer, and the acquisition by pupils, of data and psychological in addition to guide abilities. A wider that means than instruction is that of education. That’s to say all that goes on inside the faculty as a part of the pupil’s life there. It contains, amongst different issues, relationship between pupils and academics, pupils and pupils each in and out of doors the college. J. S. Mill (1931) opined that no matter helps to form the human being; to make the person what he’s or hinder him from being what he’s not is a part of his schooling. Implicitly schooling is lifelong and ubiquitous; it’s the sum whole of all influences which go to make an individual what he’s, from start to loss of life. It contains the house, our neighbors, and the road amongst others.
Training is to some extent a deliberate deliberate course of devised and carried out by the educator with the aim of imbuing the learner with sure info, abilities, of thoughts and physique in addition to modes of conduct thought-about fascinating. Partially it’s the learner’s personal response to the surroundings wherein he lives. Training has three focal factors: the person/individual upon whom the educator’s influences are delivered to bear; the society or neighborhood to which he belongs; and the entire context of actuality inside which the person and society play their half. Man is a social creature; he grows as an individual by way of the affect of persona on persona; and even for his primary bodily wants he will depend on the assistance and cooperation of his fellow women and men. With out society and the mutual help and enrichment of experiences which it offers civilization is not possible and the lifetime of man, in Hobbes’ phrases, is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and quick.”
One of many basic information of human existence is the stress between the pull of the previous and the ahead urge into the long run, between stability and alter, custom and innovation. For efficient residing,man wants a circle of safety, an space of established habits and relationship which types reliable relationships. That is additionally true of society. For its efficient functioning there should be an underlying continuity of traditions and outlook which preserves its id as a society and safeguards it in opposition to the disruptive results of change. Change should be for all times and never static however this variation in flip should be managed by the fundamental traditions of society. It’s custom which supplies a nation its character and distinctiveness as a society. The conservation of custom subsequently is clearly essential.
It has been acknowledged from time immemorial that the conservation of conventional schooling has an important half to play within the growth of the kid. The youngsters of as we speak are the adults of tomorrow; they should be educated subsequently, to inherit and perpetuate the beliefs and modes of life peculiar to the actual society to which they belong. For each society has the need to protect itself not solely bodily however as neighborhood consciously sharing sure goals, beliefs and patterns of conduct. This sort of schooling will not be essentially formal in faculties by way of classroom instruction however that effected not directly by way of the household and thru the affect on the person of social influences and customs which the kid can’t evade. In Sierra Leone this social schooling included elaborate ceremonies of initiation involving feats of endurance wherein younger women and men should show themselves worthy of the neighborhood. The final word purpose was to provide a person who was trustworthy, respectful, expert, cooperative, and who may conform to the social order of the day. As Aristotle as soon as acknowledged “the structure of a state will undergo if schooling is uncared for. The residents of a state ought to at all times be educated to swimsuit the structure of the state. The kind of character acceptable to a structure is the ability which continues to maintain it as it is usually the state drive which initially created it” (p. I).
TRADITIONAL EDUCATION IN SOCIETY
Conventional schooling has each a inventive and conservation perform in society; it’s a highly effective technique of preserving a society’s customs, if not tradition. Previously the character and wishes of society performed an important half in figuring out the character of schooling. Professor M.V.C. Jeffreys (1950) as soon as wrote in his e-book, Glaucon, that “in a tranquil society the tutorial system will are likely to mirror the social sample, whereas social uneasiness and instability create alternative for utilizing schooling as an instrument of social change”(p.7). An analogous view was shared by John Dewey (1897) who opined that by way of schooling society can formulate its personal functions, can set up its personal means and assets and thus save itself with definiteness and financial system within the path wherein it needs to maneuver. Training appears each to the previous and the long run; inevitably it displays the traditions and character of society. Conventional schooling can be utilized to arrange for modifications in society and anticipate and stop modifications or the results of modifications in society.
Conventional schooling conserves and fingers on the customs and methods of life which represent the character of a society and maintains its unity. It additionally helps society to interpret its features in new methods to satisfy the challenges of change, searching for methods or strains of growth that are in step with the traditions and customs and can on the similar time elevate society to a extra full success of itself.
TRADITIONAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN SIERRA LEONE
Historical past reveals that there have been no formal faculties the place youngsters had been educated in Pre-colonial Sierra Leone. The Poro and Bondo/Sande Secret Societies had been regarded upon as establishments to coach youngsters. They had been bush faculties. And the schooling these bush faculties offered was casual. Kids who went by way of these secret societies had been thought-about able to finishing up their civic duties. They turned adults and may marry and begin life. They thought-about themselves as one household. In different phrases each Secret Societies created a way of comradeship and unity amongst members regardless of household, clan or ethnic affiliation. It was subsequently thought-about that youngsters who had not gone by way of these secret societies weren’t totally matured.
The Poro Secret Society is for boys. The religious head of the Poro Society is Pa Gbonu, seen solely by the older graduates or members. The bodily heads are the Pa Sama Yorgbors and Pa Somanos. They direct the actions of the establishment. The senior instructors are the Pa Kashis, who usually educate and provides directions to different initiators. The Pa Manchiyas function academics to the initiates whereas the Kachemas are the scaring spirits. They scare the ladies and kids alike along with the brand new initiates. The Rakas are the errand boys carrying messages round. The Yambas are the pinnacle boys. The Bomos are the senior prefects whereas the Sayboms are the prefects; and the screens are the Gbanaboms. Casual courses are held within the Secret Poro Bush. The topics taught embody Artistic Sensible Arts, Performing Arts, Sensible Agriculture, Drugs i.e. use of native herbs for the remedy of various illnesses), warfare and different abilities. In Artistic Sensible Arts initiates are taught learn how to make fishing nets, baskets, mats, and carving wooden and cleaning soap stones into totally different objects similar to animals and people; in Performing Arts initiates are taught singing, dancing and the usage of Poro musical devices. In Sensible Agriculture initiates apply farming. Boys are taught to bear hardship with out criticism and develop accustomed to it. Thus they’re taken to the farms of their academics and elders to work on professional bono foundation. Nonetheless in the course of the harvest season initiates may move by way of these farms taking no matter they want and eat with out being questioned by farm house owners. Initiates are taught to respect elders and use of weapons to kill animals. In an analogous vein initiates are taught learn how to use weapons in preventing in protection of their communities. Different abilities initiates are taught embody making fish traps, fishing and searching web, and basketry. In the usage of herbs initiates pay cash (some freely given) for therapeutic numerous sicknesses in addition to for cover in opposition to enemies, evil spirits and snake bites. Initiates who wish to trigger hurt to others utilizing herbs may ‘redeem’ the herb/medication involved. Over all initiates are taught a brand new Language spoken solely by members referred to as Ke Sornor. For instance fonka trika that means I’m speaking to you; fonka bonomi that means Speak to me. The usage of this new Language makes graduates very proud and really feel totally different from non-initiates. Graduates come out with new names similar to Lamp, Langba and Kolerr. A commencement ceremony climaxes the occasion.